Fresh water arjaans are natural springs which have a fame of healing waters but judging by their chemical composition they cannot be considered as medicinal mineral waters. The number of fresh water aijaans is three times as much as the number of mineral springs. One can find them almost everywhere in an easy accessible places and not far from transport and energy communications. Nowadays more than 60 fresh water springs have been examined.
In the 60-s the scientists considered them "false aijaans", that's why they were believed not to have any medical healing qualities on the basis of the prevailing scientific doctrine about medicinal mineral waters. But the facts are sometimes stronger than scientific theory. Local people find cure from many diseases. This fact puts fresh water springs separately for further complex research of their healing properties.
Some information about the most famous fresh water arjaans of Tuva.
Arjaan Ala-Taiga is situated in Mongun-Taiga region about 25 km to the north-west of Kyzyl-Hiya. The temperature is 6,5 О С The macrochemical composition: hydrocarbonate, magnesium-calcium. Mineralization -0,14 g/1. Radon has not been discovered. The spring is very popular with the local people as it is good for brucellosis treatment ("malady of cattle"). There is an evidence of a local 50 year-old trade-union official (written by the author in 1989). "In childhood I was very ill. My parents said it was "mal aaree" ("malady of cattle" in Tuvian language). Now I understand it was brucellosis. When I was 7 years old I couldn 't walk, laid in bed and could not turn from one side to another without help. My arms and legs were crippled. Once my father took me to the arjaan Ala-Taiga and several times a day sank me into cold water of the spring and also gave some to drink. Three days later I could move and in a week I made strolls around the vicinities. Since that time I warship this arjaan".
The "malady of cattle" is widely spread among cattle-breeders and is caused by pathogen bacteria - brucella which is in the blood of the infected cattle. The chemical analysis of the received data doesn't give clear evidence of bactericidal properties (that is killing bacteria) of the aijaan Ala-Taiga. Perhaps, the healing effect is due to its physical properties and/or by activated state of water because of local geophysical anomalies. Those facts need further research.
Another arjaan in the region at the foot of the mountain "Little Mongulek" is called Aspaty. This spring is popular as it heals eye diseases, even progressive blindness.
This is a super fresh spring with the mineralization 0,1 g/1. The temperature is 1,5° C. Macrochemical composition: hydrocarbonate, magnesium-calcium. No radon found. The spring is peculiar for high concentration of organic substances. The quantity of volatile phenols exceeds 2,5 times the maximum permissible concentration - MPC for drinking waters. The concentration of naphthenic acid is 0,44 mg/1. The healing effect for eye diseases can be attributed to bactericidal properties of phenol.
The arjaan Bel is situated in Bie-Taiga region 12 km to the south of Kyzyl-Dug 1295 meters above the ocean level. This is the land of hills with a steppe flora. The spring has two outlets with high discharge. The water temperature is 6-10° С with the mineralization of 0,21 g/1. The macrochemical composition: hydrocarbonate-magnesium-calcium. There is no radon in the water. This spring is one of the most frequently visited arjaans in the Tuva Republic. Its fame has spread over Tuva. Normally people come here to take treatment for skin and muscle diseases, the illness of joints. In some cases it helped to cure partial paralysis.
The arjaan Turalyg is situated in the same region about 40 km to the north-west of the settlement Kara-Hol. The outlet is at the top of a hill slope and is caught into an iron tube. The water output is high. The temperature is 7° С with the mineralization of 0,18 g/1. The macrochemical composition is hydrocarbonate calcium-sodium. The local people think it's good for digestion system and curing chill.
The specific feature of the chemical composition is higher concentration of organic carbon (with no anthropogenic contamination by organic substances), silicic acid and ions of fluorine. The inclusion of organic substances implies the balneological effect in urological diseases and silicic acid has an antiinflammation impact, it increases defensive function in case of tuberculosis, slows down the development of atherosclerosis, accelerates ulcer healing. There are the restrictive standards for the composition of ions of fluorine in drinking and medical table waters. The presence of ions of fluorine in arjaan Turalyg exceeds MPC for drinking waters but has lower MPC for medical table waters. That's why the use of aijaan water for utility water supply (for example for local cattle-breeders) is not desirable as it can cause caries. The medical use of water is rather limited and that's why not forbidden.
The arjaan Angyraktyg is in the Ovur region about 30 km to the west of the settlement Handagiety in a picturesque place called Bora-Shie and is good for recreational development. Water temperature is 6° С with the mineralization of 0,25 g/1. The water discharge is high. The macrochemical composition is hydrocarbon-ate magnesium-sodium. Radon exists in the quantity of 20 eman, that is higher than normally in nature but lower than balneological standards. The outlets are caught into iron tubes which are connected with bath rooms. The local people take course of treatment for orthopedic diseases, peripheral and central nervous system.
In the same region but 10-15 km to the north-west of Handagiety there is one of the famous mineral springs - the arjaan Talgyk-Charyk (after the name of the place). The temperature is 3,5° С with the mineralization of 0,40 g/1. The macrochemical composition: sulphate-hydrocarbonate and magnesium-calcium. There is no radon in it. The local people mainly those living not far from the arjaan in settlements Handagiety and Solchur use this water in case of hypertension, rheumatism. There is one case known when a boy was cured from viral meningito-encephalitis.
In Sut:Hol region there are two fresh water arjaans: Suglug-Oi and Tos-Bashtyg. The arjaan Suglug -Oi (after the name of the place) comes out of a small mountain cleft from sand-gravel sediments. It is known only to local cattle-breeders who come here to take treatment for rheumatism. The temperature is 4° С with mineralization of 0,40 g/1. The macrochemical composition is hydrocarbonate magnesium-calcium. The discharge is low. The spring differs from other arjaans of this type by high concentration of silicic acid - 58 mg/1 that exceeds balneological norm (50 mg/1). In this case "arjaan Suglug-Oi could be classified as siliceous mineral medicinal water. But further research is required.
Arjaan Tosh-Bashtyg is situated in the steppe several kilometers to the south-east of the settlement Eyme. It has several outcomes (judging by its name their number should be nine). People say that this spring was sanctified by lamas. The average temperature is 6° С with mineralization of 0,5 g/1. The macrochemical composition: sulphate-hydrocarbonate calcium-magnesium. It contains silicic acid (29 mg/1) that could have antiinflammation effect. In Central Tuva there are fresh springs well-known within and outside the republic.
One of the most popular springs is the arjaan Kara-Sug ("Black watef) which is situated in Chaa-Hol region about 20 km to the west of the settlement Ak-Durug in a mountain area not far from the road Kyzyl-Chadan. During the season peak the number of holiday-makers here amounts to several hundreds and during the whole season thousands of people spend there their vacations. The aijaan is good for treatment of many diseases: orthopedic disorders, thyroid gland, inflammation of respiratory organs, paralysis.
Like in all other fresh springs the water is cold - 5° С with mineralization of 0,53 g/1. The macrochemical composition: sulphate-hydrocarbonate, calcium-magnesium. The discharge is very high. There is no radon and other radioactive elements in its waters. Taking into account high discharge, favourable recreational conditions, close energy and transport communication and its popularity the spring has good prospects for development of both health care and production (bottling).
The arjaan Torgalyg (after the name of the river) is a fresh water spring in Ulug-Hem region. Its other name is arjaan Kyzyl-Darug (after the name of the mountain). It is situated several kilometers to the north-west of the settlement Torgalyg. The legend says that it was discovered by a local shaman-woman who sanctified it and ordered to preserve and sanctify it every year as a spring with great healing power. The local people say it cures joint diseases, quinsy and especially kidney diseases.
The water is very cold - 3" С with high discharge and with mineralization of 0,32 g/1. The macrochemical composition: chlorine-hydrocarbonate sodium-calcium-magnesium. The peculiar feature is the high concentration of organic carbon - 46 mg/1 (the balneological norm is 5 mg/1). The waters containing a certain grade of organic substances, for example mineral water brand "Naftusya", are good for curing urological diseases. As for the arjaan Torgalyg the local people traditionally used its water for treatment of kidney diseases out of their own experience.
Further scientific and climatic research is necessary to study the healing effect and to specify the genesis and composition of organic substances in the water of the spring.
The arjaan Uurgailyg (Argolyk) is a place of pilgrimage of citizens of almost all regions of the Tuva Republic. It is situated in the Tandyn region about 6 km to the south-west of the settlement Bye-Haak. People of the bordering southern regions of Krasnoyarsk Territory and Khakass Autonomous Region often visit this place. During the arjaan season up to 1500 people have their rest there at the same time. In its popularity it follows the radon spring Shevelig-Bie (Taiga region).
It is only in the 1960-s when the arjaan water was used for medical purposes. Nevertheless people consider it to have a real magic power. It helps to cure osteochon-dritis, polyarthritis, inflammation. People suffering from hypcrtention say after treatment the blood pressure normalizes. People suffering from paralysis are frequent visitors there.
What are the properties of the arjaan water? Like all fresh arjaans it is a low mineralization spring (0,22 g/1). The temperature is 6,5° C. The discharge is high. The macrochemical composition: hydrocarbonate magnesium-calcium, without radon. The chemical composition is similar that of other fresh springs but geomagnetic studies showed the existance of clearly evident negative geomagnetic anomaly. But it is merely an established fact which requires further research.
In the same region spreading about 15 kilometers to the south-east of Bye-Haak another mineral water spring finds its way from the rock cracks on a steep slope of a hill and falls into the roaring mountain river in a picturesque mountain valley. This is arjaan Mannailyg (after the name of the river). Its healing power is long known: even old people say that they knew about it from their parents and their grand-grand parents. This spring was worshiped by buddhist lamas and in old times Tuvian and Mongolian lamas sanctified it annually and blessed people for treatment. Despite the fact that this place is very difficult to reach the local Tuvian people as well as mongols come there f to bathe. The spring is good for treatment of many diseases: disorders of motor function are partly or fully cured. People suffering from paralysis and barrenness are brought here. Unfortunately it is not. easy to prove this information since there has been no medical research yet.
This is a low temperature spring (5-7° C) with a modest discharge. The rate of mineralization is 0,15 g/1. The macrochemical composition: hydrocarbonate calcium-magnesium-sodium. There is no radon in it. The spring also lacks many microelements.
In the Erzyn region one of the most popular mineral springs is arjaan Ah-Haiyrakan (after the name of the mountain which means "White bear"). It is situated about 8 km to the north-east of the settlement Moren in the mountain canyon. Its water comes out from the mountain cracks and makes tiny brooks falling from a vertical slope.
The aijaan is frequently visited by the local people who traditionally distinguish "feminine" and "masculine" outlets. Men and women older than 14 use the according outlets. The legend says that if a woman visits "masculine" spring and vice versa it will dry out. This rule is strict and contemporary researches have to observe this old tradition and ask the spirit of arjaan and the local people for permission to carry on studies. On the return from an arjaan one has to make a thanksgiving ritual - to tie ribbons ("chalamas") to a branch of a tree. Besides "masculine" and "feminine" springs there are arjaans which both men and women can use ("common" outlets). The popularity of the spring makes the local authorities undertake measures to improve services, utilities and transport system. The local lamas and shamans eveiy year sanctify the spring and make "a centre of worship" ("san salyr chery") at a "common" outlet. Almost all arjaans have such "centres of worship".
According to local people this arjaan helps to cure disorders of digestion and motor function, paralysis. The three springs have similar characteristics in their hydrochemical composition and other conditions. The temperature is 6-10° С with mineralization of 0,5-0,6 g/1. The macrochemical composition: sulphate-hydro-carbonate, calcium. The discharge is low and depends on precipitation level. The contents of radon doesn't exceed the natural level.
And finally another spring - the arjaan Chureck-Dorgan is worth mentioning. This fresh water spring is situated in Kaa-Hem region 5-6 km to the north-west of the farm "Sovtuva". The temperature is 10° С with mineralization of 0,39 g/1. The macrochemical composition: hydro-carbonate magnesium-calcium. The discharge is low.
People suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, hypertension come there to take a course of treatment. The word "chureck" in the name of the arjaan means "heart". Could it be linked with the healing properties of the aijaan in case of heart and vascular diseases? The answer could be positive only after the comprehensive research of both clinical and ethnic origin. But this is true for all arjaans of the Tuva Republic.
Author: Kara-Kys Donghak Arakchaa
Veb design: Taybyl Chingis firstname.lastname@example.org